While Attack Resistant Doors have similar components and requirements to other high security doors, there are key differences. First, the primary goal of an attack resistant door is protect against the specific, all too common threat of an active shooter attack.
This requires that an Attack Resistant Door must remain fully operable – meaning the door and lock cannot fail so they can continue to prevent entry into the premises or other parts of the building. This delays (or prevents) an active shooter’s intrusion and provides more time for building occupants to escape and find shelter as well as alert first responders.
There is a key misunderstanding that an attack resistant door is ballistic resistant – meaning it stops penetration of the projectile. This is NOT its primary functional goal. Unlike a ballistic resistant door, it is acceptable if a bullet penetrates an Attack Resistant Door. However, after being shot at as many as 60 times (evenly split between targeting the lock and the door lite), an attack resistant door must continue to remain fully locked and operational by resisting being breached. Put more simply: an attack resistant door fails testing if the door can be opened either by disabling the lock or creating a hole that allows it to be unlocked.
An attack resistant door is tested slightly differently than the Department of State SD-STD-01.01 Rev G and Rev H standards that apply to forced entry and FEBR doors. There are two relatively new standards: The FILTI Shooter Attack Certification and the 5-aa10 standard that was developed from the 2014 FBI Active Shooter Report specifically for wood and hollow metal doors as these are the most commonly installed interior building doors.
FILTI is a standard developed and tested at an independent test lab in the United States that has been witnessed by UL Solutions (formerly UL or Underwriters Laboratories) and the National Safety Security Protection Association (NSSPA). The FILTI standard has two component tests that are similar to a FEBR test in that there is a ballistic test and a forced entry test.
The first test is called the FILTI Shooter Attack Test and uses 30 AR15 .223 rounds. The door, lock and glass are shot 10 times each to ascertain if it can withstand failure. It is then immediately hit with at least two (2) blows from a 100-pound battering ram at a minimal calibrated force of 50-foot pounds. The door must remain in tact throughout the two ram strikes. If at any time prior to the second blow the ram penetrates or breaches the door, the test is terminated and the product fails.
The 5-aa10 standard requires that the door be shot repeatedly (up to 60 times), followed by a single assailant then attacking the door for no less than three minutes using tools that include a rifle butt, various hammers and a baseball bat. If at any point during this timed test the door lock fails or the door is opened, the test is terminated and the door cannot receive a passing rating.
You might wonder why FEBR doors would not be used instead of Attack Resistant doors. There are several reasons. Attack Resistant doors are specifically designed to protect against an active shooter attack. Their entire design strategy works to provide building occupants as much time as possible to escape, find cover and shelter in place as well as call for help and thereby increase the likelihood that first responders can arrive on site in time to intervene. The longer the shooter is delayed from entering the building the better chance there is to save lives by allowing law enforcement enough time to engage the shooter.
The second reason is less important but still consequential. Cost. FEBR and ballistic resistant doors are significantly more expensive than attack resistant doors. This is primarily because attack resistant doors are typically made of wood or lighter gauge hollow metal compared to a FEBR door’s heavier gauge metal that is required for government and high security military use. This also means attack resistant doors are lighter and easier to open and close, and this can be an important consideration when installing doors in elementary and middle school classrooms where children will be the primary users.
Attack Resistant Doors and frames are made from numerous materials such as steel, aluminum, wood, and composites.
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